Even in high-income countries, relative poverty also affects the performance of students. Chmielewski assessed the socioeconomic achievement gap in 100 countries via 30 international large-scale assessments between 1964 – 2015, totalling 5.8 million students. She found that the gap increased in most of the countries.
Furthermore, social reproduction expands the disparities and exclusion across generations.
Exclusion in education from socio-economic disparities is the result of poverty, parental education and literacy, location of residence, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, conflicts, crises, disasters, displacement, and others. Education policies are one of the most effective instruments to solve the issues. Also, cooperation from all sectors is required.
This section displays the situations of the disparities, globally and locally, possible and tangible solutions to the issues, and the ongoing attempts of the stakeholders to reach the solutions.